literally, ‘amber’. Variations on this term are widely used in Europe to denote wines made with white grapes that have turned amber in color due to controlled exposure to oxygen and/or heat over a period of years prior to bottling. The primary, fresh fruit expressions of such wines give way to complex secondary- or tertiary characteristics including dried fruit, roasted nuts and emerging spices notes. The impression of weight and the texture of such wines is likewise transformed, becoming richer and more concentrated. Examples include Rancio sec, Rivesaltes, Marsala, Carcavelos and Madeira, though the term does not necessarily have official standing in each of these appellations.